Editorial Addition, first let's look at the employed.
For the month of January 2013 4.8% of the employed, 6,738,000 Americans, 16 years and older, worked two jobs to make ends meet, of which 3,285,000 were men and 3,453,000 were women.
Those that worked two full time jobs, numbered 211,000 with 100,000 being women.
Those that had a full time job and a part time job numbered 3,524,000 of which 1,924,000 were men and 1,600,000 were women.
Those that had 2 part time jobs, numbered 1,786,000 of which 544,000 were men and 1,242,000 were women.
Those that had two jobs and their hours varied on their primary or secondary between part time and fulltime, numbered 1,171,000, out of which 680,000 were men and 491,000 were women.
Thus more women than men are working two jobs, 168,000 more women than men. When it comes to two full time jobs, the sexes are fairly equal, 10,000 men more than women, however, when it comes to not having a full time job and working 2 part time jobs, the gender disparity is huge, woman exceed men in this criteria by 698,000. Women are 70% of those working two jobs both part time and living without full time employment benefits and statistically that has been the case for the last decade.
A good percentage of part time work is minimum wage, which is federally $7.25, however January 1,2013 ten states raised it, the highest increase above federal was to $9.19 an hour in the state of Washington.
Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 157,000 in January, and the unemployment
rate was essentially unchanged at 7.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Retail trade, construction, health care, and wholesale trade added jobs
over the month.
Household Survey Data
The number of unemployed persons, at 12.3 million, was little changed in January. The
unemployment rate was 7.9 percent and has been at or near that level since September 2012.
Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (7.3 percent), adult
women (7.3 percent), teenagers (23.4 percent), whites (7.0 percent), blacks (13.8 percent),
and Hispanics (9.7 percent) showed little or no change in January. The jobless rate for
Asians was 6.5 percent (not seasonally adjusted), little changed from a year earlier.
Teenagers 16 to 19 were at an unemployment rate of 23.4, however if you are viewed White your rate was 20.8, African American your rate was 37.8 and Hispanic or Latino your rate was 26.5 including seasonal work.
In January, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was
about unchanged at 4.7 million and accounted for 38.1 percent of the unemployed.
Both the employment-population ratio (58.6 percent) and the civilian labor force
participation rate (63.6 percent) were unchanged in January.
The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 8.0 million, changed
little in January. These individuals were working part time because their hours had been
cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job.
In January, 2.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down by
366,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had
not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.
Among the marginally attached, there were 804,000 discouraged workers in January, a decline
of 255,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers
are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for
them. The remaining 1.6 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in January
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey for reasons such as school
attendance or family responsibilities.
Establishment Survey Data
Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 157,000 in January. In 2012, employment growth
averaged 181,000 per month. In January, job gains occurred in retail trade, construction,
health care, and wholesale trade, while employment edged down in transportation and
Employment in retail trade rose by 33,000 in January, compared with an average monthly
gain of 20,000 in 2012. Within the industry, job growth continued in January in motor
vehicle and parts dealers (+7,000), electronics and appliance stores (+5,000), and
clothing stores (+10,000).
In January, employment in construction increased by 28,000. Nearly all of the job growth
occurred in specialty trade contractors (+26,000), with the gain about equally split
between residential and nonresidential specialty trade contractors. Since reaching a low
in January 2011, construction employment has grown by 296,000, with one-third of the gain
occurring in the last 4 months. However, the January 2013 level of construction employment
remained about 2 million below its previous peak level in April 2006.
Health care continued to add jobs in January (+23,000). Within health care, job growth
occurred in ambulatory health care services (+28,000), which includes doctors' offices
and outpatient care centers. This gain was partially offset by a loss of 8,000 jobs in
nursing and residential care facilities. Over the year, health care employment has
increased by 320,000.
Employment increased in wholesale trade (+15,000) in January, with most of the increase
occurring in its nondurable goods component (+11,000). Since the recent low point in
May 2010, wholesale trade has added 291,000 jobs.
Mining employment increased (+6,000) over the month; employment in this industry has risen
by 23,000 over the past 3 months.
Employment edged down in transportation and warehousing in January (-14,000). Couriers and
messengers lost 19,000 jobs over the month, following strong seasonal hiring in
November and December. Air transportation employment decreased by 5,000 in January.
Manufacturing employment was essentially unchanged in January and has changed little, on
net, since July 2012.
Employment in other major industries, including financial activities, professional and
businesses services, leisure and hospitality, and government, showed little change over
In January, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged
at 34.4 hours. The manufacturing workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.6 hours, and factory
overtime was unchanged at 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory
employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1 hour to 33.6 hours.
Average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 4 cents to
$23.78. Over the year, average hourly earnings have risen by 2.1 percent. In January,
average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased
by 5 cents to $19.97.